2.2° Railway sector
Concerning the railways legislation evolution, Council Directive 96/48/EC of 23 July 1996 on the interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail system has promoted a harmonized European standard ST EN 45 545. The deadline to apply the new criteria of European legislation is 2012. The CEN TS 45 554- part 2 is dedicated to fire protection of railways vehicule, according to the use of trains (high speed, presence of tunnels). The new criteria of the fire protection for materials are:
        • spread of flame , rate of heat release, ignitability
        • toxicity
        • smoke opacity
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Figure 3 Seat in testing conditions
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In CEN TS 45 545 Annex B, the standards indicate that full passenger seats, appropriately vandalised shall be tested. The seats shall include arm, head rests, foams and back and base shell. The level of vandalisation determined during the test of Annex A CEN TS 45 545 shall be reproduced in the following way:
The layers that were cut or perforated for a longer distance than 50 mm shall be cut along the diagonals beginning 50 mm from the corners. The fully cut layers shall be rolled up and pinned as shown in the figure 3. The rolling and pinning shall be done so that there is no interference with the burner trajectory. To make sure that the requirements of burner position are fulfilled, the rolled up flats shall be cut off. The pulling the bonded layer back it remains integral (e.g. woven layer bonded to a core foam) and brings with it some additional material from the underlying layer. In this circumstance the underlying material that comes away during the process is left bonded to the pulled back layer. The following figure and table present the test and the combustion of no fire retardant seat under standard conditions.